Different kinds of microorganisms are involved in the fermentation process of plant residues in the organic fertilizer manufacturing process
. Due to the changes in the raw materials and fermentation conditions of different plant residues, the number of various microorganisms is also constantly changing, so no microorganisms always dominate the plant residue fermentation process, and each environment has its own specific microorganism population. The main types of microorganisms involved in the fermentation process of plant residues are bacteria,
1) Bacteria During the aerobic fermentation process, there are a large number of bacteria. With a large specific surface area, bacteria can quickly absorb soluble substances in plant residues, allowing them to grow rapidly. In the early stage of fermentation, the temperature is low, mainly mesophilic bacteria. As the temperature of the fermentation reactor increases, mesophilic bacteria gradually decrease, and some Bacillus become the main body of bacteria.
2) Actinomycetes Actinomycetes are multi-cell hyphae bacteria that can decompose cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, etc. They do not have the ability of fungi to decompose cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, but they are more resistant to high temperature and high pH than fungi. Therefore, they are the predominant flora degrading cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin during the high temperature period of fermentation.
3) Fungi. Fungi are of great significance to the fermentation and maturation of plant residues. The mesophilic fungus Geotrichum and the thermophilic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus are the dominant bacterial groups in the fermentation process. Temperature is one of the most important factors affecting the growth of fungi. Most fungi are mesophilic fungi, which exist in the environment of 5 ~ 37 ℃. When the temperature rises to 64 ℃, almost all fungi disappear. When the temperature drops to 60 ℃ in the late fermentation period, mesophilic and thermophilic fungi will appear again.
In short, in the fermentation process of plant residues mainly rely on the role of microorganisms, microorganisms are the main body of fermentation, its source is the natural world, the second is artificial inoculation. In the fermentation process, high temperature will kill pathogens, eggs and weed seeds in plant residues.