The fertilizer manufacturing process
(1) Preparation of microbial fermentation-based strain mixture
To produce bio-organic fertilizers, it is necessary to use bio-fermentation bases as strains. We use HM fermentation bases here. In order to bring more than 10 beneficial microorganisms such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria, potassium-resolving bacteria, phosphate-resolving bacteria, yeasts, actinomycetes, Bacillus megaterium, and Bacillus subtilis in HM fermentation base into contact with chicken manure more evenly A bag of 100 grams of HM fermentation base is divided into five equal parts, each 20 grams, in each HM fermentation base, add about 1-1.6 kg of wheat bran or soybean meal and other auxiliary materials, fully mixed evenly, we Call it a mixture of strains. In this way, about 200 kg of chicken manure can be fermented by each bacterial mixture.
(2) Two manufacturing methods:
The production of biological organic fertilizer for livestock and poultry manure can be divided into static processing and dynamic processing.
1. Technology of static processing and manufacturing of bio-organic fertilizer:
Static processing of bio-organic fertilizer is a self-made bio-organic fertilizer made by farmers in the field. It has a simple method, is easy to operate, has low investment, and is suitable for small professional farming households.
(1) Preparation of chicken manure and accessories
Choose an open space of about 30 square meters with flat ground, no water accumulation, and separate chicken manure and auxiliary materials.
In order to facilitate the mixture of strains and chicken manure to be evenly mixed, we divided 1000 kg of chicken manure into five equal parts. Each aliquot is about 200 kg.
Generally granular or powdered wheat bran, peanut shell powder, etc. as the main auxiliary materials, such as corn stalks, cotton stalks, etc. as auxiliary materials, they must first be cut into 5-10 cm length, too long will cause stirring inconvenient. The purpose of adding auxiliary materials is to adjust the water content and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of chicken manure and increase the permeability of the fermented material.
(2) Construction of fermentation platform
After the chicken manure and auxiliary materials are prepared, a fermentation platform should be built according to the environment and the actual situation of the farmers.
When building a fermentation platform, choose a place that is sunny, flat, high in terrain, avoids air vents, and is easy to operate. First dig a number of parallel ventilation trenches, trench width 30 cm, depth 30 cm, trench beam width 20 cm. Spread branches, bamboo strips, straws, etc. on the ditch beams to form a bottom-permeable fermentation platform, which is convenient for ventilation and oxygen supply. Because the beneficial organism flora in the HM fermentation base belongs to aerobic strains, the fermented product can only be rotted better when the oxygen is sufficient.
After the fermentation platform is built, we can proceed to the manufacture of statically processed bio-organic fertilizer.
(3) Operation steps
Spread a mixture of strains evenly on the prepared chicken manure and mix well. During the mixing process, the water content of the chicken manure should be adjusted to about 60%, that is, hold a handful of chicken manure in the hand, hold it tightly, and see the water between the fingers but not drip. Let go of your hand and spread it out with a light touch. Such a water content is enough. If the water content is too high, add wheat bran, corn stover and other auxiliary materials to reduce the water content of chicken manure; if the water content is too low, add fresh chicken manure or sprinkle some water. Stack the stirred chicken manure on the fermentation platform.
Treat the other four piles of chicken manure in the same way, all piled together. At this time, the height is about 1-1.2 meters, the length and width are 1.5-2 meters square, the volume of compost is generally 1.5 cubic meters.
(4) Management of fermentation process
During fermentation, temperature control is very important. If the temperature is too low, it cannot reach the standard of maturation; if the temperature is too high, the nutrients of compost are easily lost. The temperature inside the compost is within 30 cm from the outside to the inside. Therefore, the thermometer used to measure the temperature, its metal rod must be longer than 30 cm, when measuring, it must be inserted more than 30 cm in the compost in order to accurately reflect the fermentation temperature of the compost.
Requirements for fermentation temperature and time:
After composting, chicken manure enters the first fermentation stage. It will automatically heat up to above 55 ℃ for 5 to 7 days, then it can kill most of the parasite eggs and harmful bacteria, reaching the harmless treatment standard. Turn the pile once every 3 days or so, which is conducive to ventilation, heat dissipation and rot.
After 7-10 days of fermentation, the temperature naturally drops below 50 ° C. Since some strains lose their activity due to high temperature during the first fermentation process, the second fermentation is required. Add 5-8 kg of strain mixture again and mix well. At this time, the moisture is controlled at about 50%. If you grab a handful of chicken dung in your hand, hold it tightly, the palm is wet, and there is no water seeping between your fingers, indicating that the water is suitable.
The temperature of the second fermentation must be controlled below 50 ° C. After 10-20 days, the temperature in the compost has dropped below 40 ° C, which has reached the maturity standard.
(5) Matters needing attention in the fermentation process
In the process of manufacturing bio-organic fertilizer by static methods, attention should be paid to:
Covering the surface of the fermented material with a layer of finely crushed straw of about 10 cm or sprinkling a layer of superphosphate can reduce the evaporation of ammonia gas and avoid the loss of nutrients.
In case of strong wind during fermentation, the top should be covered with straw and other air-permeable materials to reduce the evaporation of water and the loss of temperature.
Livestock manure is stored for too long or there are more straws and weeds in the manure, and less manure. You can add some rapeseed meal, urea or fresh chicken manure to increase the nitrogen content, increase the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and speed up the fermentation. Improve fertilizer quality.
The pH value of the compost should be controlled at 5.5-8.5. If the pH value of the compost is lower than 5.5, it is too acidic, and quick lime can be added for adjustment.
It should be avoided to produce bio-organic fertilizer in the open air during the rainy season as much as possible to avoid excessive moisture.
For example, during the process of composting, the moisture is too high and the permeability is poor, you can insert a few straws in the middle of the fermentation pile to help ventilation.
When the color of the bio-organic fertilizer becomes dark brown or yellow-brown, the surface of the organic fertilizer inside the compost has a lot of white hyphae, no raw chicken manure, no maggots, no odor, and a slight ammonia smell. The bio-organic fertilizer manufactured in a static manner has reached the maturity standard. It can be used as base fertilizer or top dressing directly in the field.
The above introduces the method of using small-scale static processing of chicken manure to produce bio-organic fertilizer. Farmers can arrange production according to local conditions according to different manure sources, site size and fertilizer demand.